الإثنين,23 أبريل 2012 - 12:00 ص
: 26611    

كتب الحسين محمود elhossien mahmoud
01019888736 elhossien@hotmail.com

Transparency International Plain Language Guide to Anti-Corruption Terms TI hasdeveloped a plain language guide to capture the key terms for the movement’s stakeholders in government, the private sector and civil society

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Foreword

While the world is not free from corruption, it is a very different place than when Transparency International began its work more than 15 years ago. There has been a marked increase in the understanding of corruption’s ills and the need to prevent, mitigate and combat it. Yet the financial and economic crisis in 2008 has served as a reminder of what can happen when transparency,accountability and anti-corruption become afterthoughts rather than the guide for one’s actions

Having a common understanding and language for the anti-corruption movement is one channel for ensuring that such breakdowns and abuses are prevented in the future. It is in this spirit that TI hasdeveloped a plain language guide to capture the key terms for the movement’s stakeholders in government, the private sector and civil society

 

Acknowledgements

TI would like to thank all the national chapters, members and partners that have helped make this guide a reality. With what began as an insipient idea among TI members, the guide has progressed quickly from its beginning as a small meeting prior to the International anti-Corruption Conference

(IACC) in Athens, Greece in October 2008. This early morning session gained tremendously from the contributions of Farzana Nawaz, Finn Heinrich, Christian Humborg, Pierre Landell Mills, Georg Neumann, Juanita Riaño, Bruno Speck, Codru Vrabi and Peter Wilkinson. It has helped to set the tone

of all the work that has followed.

TI would particularly like to thank Amaya Gorostiaga, who has translated the original vision for the guide into such an excellent text.

Throughout this process, the work of TI’s national chapters has been critical. TI would like to recognise the contributions of chapters in Bangladesh, Kenya, Lebanon, Romania, South Korea and Zambia that helped to pilot the guide with key stakeholders from the government, parliament, private sector, civil

society and media.

Introduction

Corruption and its effects are a global dilemma. From small bribes paid to police officers in

Bangladesh to the holding of stolen assets by Swiss banks, the impacts from these abuses on states

and citizens are the same: the undermining of the rule of law, the violation of rights, opaque

institutions, lost public resources, and weakened national integrity.

To effectively address these problems, anti-corruption solutions need to be pursued through

coordinated and deliberate action by international, national and local partners that use the same

language and agree on its meaning.

In response, TI has developed the first “Plain Language Guide to Anticorruption Terms”. The Plain

Language Guide offers a set of standardised, easy-to-understand definitions, providing readers with

concrete examples in practice. Relevant links are also provided for further background information or

research.

The aim of the guide is to provide clarity on the terms that the anti-corruption movement uses most in

its daily work as well as those associated with new and emerging issues. The terms in this guide have

been selected given their wide use in diverse forums and across the public and private sectors. Each

term is intended to stimulate a dialogue — within academia, the business community, among NGOs

and in international development circles — on how to address corruption.

The experiences of TI chapters in over 90 countries have formed the basis for this guide and the terms

selected. The guide is the result of the collaborative efforts of a number of Transparency International

chapters across different regions. It reflects the extensive consultations that they held with local

stakeholders to devise a short list of terms and definitions that can be understood across different

cultures, languages and contexts.

Many of these terms are in continual evolution as the anti-corruption movement works to better

understand what is ‘governance’, ‘civil society’ or even ‘corruption’.

The guide serves as a platform for continuing this discussion as the movement evolves, grows and

continues to learn. It is a living document that will be debated, expanded and updated.

We look forward to your continued help in this process.

List of Terms
1. Access to Information
2. Accountability
3. Asset Recovery
4. Audit
5. Bribery
6. Civil Society
7. Clientelism
8. Code of Conduct
9. Collusion
10. Compliance
11. Conflict of Interests
12. Conventions
13. Corporate Governance
14. Corruption
15. Debarment
16. Disclosure
17. Embezzlement
18. Ethics
19. Extortion
20. Facilitation Payments
21. Fraud
22. Governance
23. Grand Corruption
24. Integrity
25. Lobbying
26. Money Laundering
27. National Integrity Systems
28. Nepotism
29. Offshore Financial Centres
30. Oversight
31. Pacts
32. Patronage
33. Petty Corruption
34. Political Contribution
35. Political Corruption
36. Political Will
37. Private Sector
38. Procurement
39. Public Sector
40. Revolving Door
41. Rule of Law
42. Solicitation
43. State Capture
44. Transparency
45. Whistle blowing

 

Terms
1. Access to information
Definition
The right by law — often through freedom of information acts or laws — to access key public facts and
data from the government and any public body. Budgets, project approvals and evaluations are
typically published although citizens can petition for more.1
Example in practice
Canada’s Access to Information Act allows citizens to request online any public record from a federal
body,2 with the exception of documents considered threatening to the security, economic, domestic, or
international affairs of the country.
Relevant links
—— Article 19 Global Campaign for Free Expression.
http://www.article19.org/work/index.html
—— The CarterCenter: Access to Information.
http://www.cartercenter.org/peace/americas/information.html
—— International Budget Partnership.
http://www.internationalbudget.org/
——UN Anti—Corruption Toolkit, Tool #19 Access to Information, p. 301.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
—— UNDP Practical Guidance Note on the Right to Information.
http://www.undp.org/governance/docs/A2I_Guides_RighttoInformation.pdf
2. Accountability
Definition
The concept that individuals and agencies, whether operating in the public or private sector, are held
responsible for executing their powers properly. In democracies, it is characterized as the relationship
between a leader and the persons s/he is accountable to.3
1 U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2002 – Deeping Democracy in a Fragmented World
(New York: OxfordUniversity Press, 2002)
T. Mendel, ‘Corruption, access to information and human development’, in: United Nations Development Programme, Tackling
Corruption, Transforming Lives: Selected Background Papers for Asia-Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2009).
The CarterCenter: Access to Information http://www.cartercenter.org/peace/americas/information.html
2 Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Access to Information Request Form http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/tbsf-fsct/350-57-eng.asp
3 National Endowment for Democracy, Institutionalizing Horizontal Accountability: how democracies can fight corruption and the
abuse of power http://www.ned.org/forum/reports/accountability/report.html
NOLAN 2008, Latin American Futures http://www.nolan2008.uib.no/workshops/workshop8/index.html
Transparency International, Combating Corruption in Judicial Systems
www.transparency.org/content/download/27437/413264/file/Judiciary_ Advocacy_ToolKit.pdf
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
M. O’Brien and R. Pelizzo, ‘Accountability in Governance’
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PUBLICSECTORANDGOVERNANCE/Resources/AccountabilityGovernance.pdf
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 2002 – Deeping Democracy in a Fragmented World
(New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf
In theory, there are three forms of accountability: diagonal, horizontal and vertical.
? Diagonal accountability is when citizens use government institutions to elicit better oversight of
the state’s actions, and in the process engage in policy-making, budgeting, expenditure
tracking and other activities.
? Horizontal accountability subjects public officials to restraint and oversight, or ‘checks and
balances’ by other government agencies (i.e. courts, ombudsman, auditing agencies, central
banks) that can call into question, and eventually punish, an official for improper conduct.
? Vertical accountability holds a public official accountable to the electorate or citizenry through
elections, a free press, an active civil society and other similar channels.
Example in practice
In Costa Rica, the existence of three branches of government, as well as two autonomous state
authorities with equivalent responsibilities (electoral and auditory branches), has created horizontal
accountability and allowed for a separation of powers among state agencies, which are constitutionally
empowered to take action against one another when required.
Relevant links
—— AccountAbility.
http://www.accountability21.net/
—— National Endowment for Democracy, Institutionalizing Horizontal Accountability.
http://www.ned.org/forum/reports/accountability/report.html.
3. Asset Recovery
Definition
The right of a government and its citizens to recover state resources stolen through corruption by past
regimes, their families and political allies, or foreign actors.4
Example in practice
In 2004, US$ 624 million was transferred to the Philippine Treasury from Swiss bank accounts to
repatriate funds stolen by former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos, who allegedly embezzled
between US$ 5 - 10 billion during his presidency. 5
Relevant links
—— The Camden Assets Recovery Inter-Agency Network (CARIN).
http://www.europol.europa.eu/publications/Camden_Assets_Recovery_Inter—
Agency_Network/CARIN_Europol.pdf
—— International Centre for Asset Recovery, Basel Institute on Governance.
http://www.baselgovernance.org/icar/
—— UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, Ch. 10 ‘Recovery and Return of Proceeds of Corruption’.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
—— UNODC: Open-ended International Working Group on Asset Recovery.
http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/working-group2.html
—— World Bank: Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative.
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/Star-rep-full.pdf
4. Audit
4 Basel Institute on Governance, Glossary http://www.assetrecovery.org/kc/node/786c5ae2-5c7c-11dd-8c6a-
7bd68e2d933e.html
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Convention Against Corruption http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/index.html
5 Stolen Asset Recovery (StAR) Initiative http://siteresources.worldbank.org/NEWS/Resources/Star-rep-full.pdf
Definition
An internal or external examination of an organization’s accounts, processes, functions and
performance to produce an independent and credible assessment of their compliance with applicable
laws and regulations. Communities can conduct a ‘social audit’ of basic service delivery.6
Example in practice
Indonesia’s Supreme Audit Agency found US$ 40 million missing from post-Tsunami emergency funds
and massive irregularities, including that the bulk of materials bought went unused and many
purchases were made long after the emergency period was over.7
Relevant links
—— INTOSAI (International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions).
http://www.intosai.org/en/portal/
—— ISSAI (International Standards of Supreme Audit Institutions).
http://www.issai.org/composite-347.htm
—— PEFA (Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability).
http://www.pefa.org/
—— UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, Tool #5 Auditors and audit institutions, p. 100.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
—— World Bank: Features and Functions of Supreme Audit Institutions.
http://www.worldbank.org/afr/findings/english/find208.pdf
5. Bribery
Definition
The offering, promising, giving, accepting or soliciting of an advantage as an inducement for an action
which is illegal or a breach of trust. Inducements can take the form of gifts, loans, fees, rewards or
other advantages (taxes, services, donations, etc.).8
Example in practice
More than 15 percent of respondents to a national household survey in Guatemala said they have
paid a bribe when trying to (re)connect to the public water system.9 In Bangladesh, 64,5 percent of
respondents to a national household survey said they have paid a bribe when interacting with law
enforcement agencies. Bribery across all agencies is estimated to reduce Bangladesh’s national
income by 3.84 percent.10
Relevant links
—— OECD Anti-Bribery Convention.
http://www.oecd.org/department/0,3355,en_2649_34859_1_1_1_1_1,00.html
6 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Features and Functions of Supreme Audit Institutions
http://www.worldbank.org/afr/findings/english/find208.pdf
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004)
7 Michael Renner, ‘Indonesia's Supreme Audit Agency Finds Massive Irregularities in the Use of Post-Tsunami Emergency
Funds’, Worldwatch Institute. 5 July 2006. (www.worldwatch.org/node/4196).
8 U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
Transparency International, Combating Corruption in Judicial Systems
www.transparency.org/content/download/27437/413264/file/Judiciary_ Advocacy_ToolKit.pdf.
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
Wikipedia: bribery http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bribery
The Lebanese Transparency Association (LTA), ‘Youth against Corruption’, (Lebanon, 2005).
Black’s Law Dictionary http://www.blackslawdictionary.com/
9 Transparency International, Global Corruption Report 2008 – Corruption in the Water Sector (Berlin: Transparency
International, 2008).
10 TI Bangladesh, National Household Survey on Corruption in Bangladesh (Dhaka : TI Bangladesh, 2007). www.tibangladesh.
org.
—— OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business
Transactions.
http://www.oecd.org/document/21/0,3343,en_2649_34859_2017813_1_1_1_1,00.html
——Transparency International Bribe Payers Index.
http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/bpi
——Transparency International’s Business Principles for Countering Bribery.
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/private_sector/business_principles
6. Civil Society
Definition
The arena, outside of the family, state and market where people associate to advance a common set
of interests. Voluntary and community groups, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), trade unions
and faith-based organisations commonly are included in this sphere.11
Example in practice
An assessment of Mali’s civil society has shown that at the grassroots level, there are numerous
parent’s associations, community committees on health, women’s associations and other groups that
have come together to advocate for their members’ interests vis-à-vis the government’s provision of
services. National-level groups, such as those representing journalists, also have formed, including to
pressure the government to better and more systematically address corruption and poverty.12
Relevant links
—— Civicus:
www.civicus.org
—— BBC World Service: Civil Society: The ultimate Third Way.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/special_report/1999/02/99/e—cyclopedia/1156120.stm,
—— European Commission: Justice and Home Affairs – Freedom, Security and Justice Glossary.
http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/glossary/glossary_c_en.htm.
—— London School of Economics: Centre for Civil Society.
http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/what_is_civil_society.htm.
—— UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service.
www.un—ngls.org.
—— World Bank: Civil Society.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/CSO/0,,pagePK:220469~theSitePK:228717,0
0.html.
7. Clientelism
Definition
An unequal system of exchanging resources and favours based on an exploitative relationship
between a wealthier and/or more powerful ‘patron’ and a less wealthy and weaker ‘client’.13
11 See: F. Heinrich. “Assessing and Strengthening Civil Society Worldwide”, CIVICUS Civil Society Index Paper Series. Volume
2, Issue. (Johannesburg, South Africa: CIVICUS, 2004). http://www.civicus.org/new/media/CSI_Heinrich_paper.pdf.
12 Abdou Togola and Dan Gerber. “An Evaluation of Malian Civil Society’s Role in Governance”. Open Society Institute Africa
Governance Monitoring & Advocacy Project. (OSI, March 2007).
http://www.afrimap.org/english/images/paper/Mali_Civil_Society(fin).pdf.
13 P. Keefer, ‘Clientelism, Credibility, and the Policy Choices of Young Democracies’, World Bank Group, 2005.
http://www.qog.pol.gu.se/conferences/november2005/papers/Keefer.pdf
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf.
U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
Example in practice
In Mexico, caciques or local power brokers provide peasants with plots of land, loans, security, and a
medium through which to sell their crops in exchange for the peasants’ votes, often using strong-arm
tactics to reinforce their power.
Relevant links
—— USAID: Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance - An Overview and Framework
for Assessment and Programming.
http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnacr426.pdf
—— World Bank: Policy Research Paper, Democracy, Credibility and Clientelism.
http://www-
0wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2005/02/02/000009486_200502021
65259/Rendered/PDF/wps3472.pdf
8. Code of Conduct
Definition
A statement of principles and values that establishes a set of expectations and standards for how an
organization, government body, company or affiliated group will behave, including minimal levels of
compliance and disciplinary actions.14
Example in practice
The federal government of Nigeria has adopted a ‘Code of Conduct for Ministers and Special Advisers’
engaged in government business dealings to ensure that the actions and behaviour of public officers
conform to the highest standards of public morality and accountability.15
Relevant links
—— EU Code of Conduct on Arms Exports.
http://www.consilium.eu.int/uedocs/cmsUpload/08675r2en8.pdf
—— UN International Code of Conduct for Public Officials.
http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/51/a51r059.htm
—— World Bank: Fighting Judicial Integrity – Examples of Judicial Codes of Conduct.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTLAWJUSTINST/0,,contentMDK:20756643
~menuPK:2036129~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:1974062,00.html
9. Collusion
Definition
A secret agreement between parties, in the public and/or private sector, to conspire to commit actions
aimed to deceive or commit fraud.16
Example in practice
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
14 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd
edition (Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
Transparency International, Combating Corruption in Judicial Systems
www.transparency.org/content/download/27437/413264/file/Judiciary_ Advocacy_ToolKit.pdf
15 Federal Republic of Nigeria: Code of Conduct for Judicial Officers http://www.nigerialaw.
org/CodeOfConductForJudicialOfficers.htm.
16 Independent Commission against Corruption. New South Wales government.
http://www.icac.nsw.gov.au/index.cfm?objectid=3408D1E0-CA0C-775C-3BF191F69571B807.
Economist. http://www.economist.com/research/Economics/alphabetic.cfm?term=cartel#carte.
The Ghanaian government has been accused of colluding with logging companies to allow them to
operate without the proper licensing and certification standards, resulting in civil society estimates that
only 5 of the 600 logging concessions in the country are legal.17
Relevant links
—— European Investment Bank.
http://www.eib.org/attachments/strategies/anti_fraud_policy_20080408_en.pdf.
—— OECD: Glossary of Statistical Terms.
http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=3159.
—— US Department of Justice.
http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/public/guidelines/211578.htm.
10. Compliance
Definition
Refers to the procedures, systems or departments within public agencies or companies that ensure all
legal, operational and financial activities are in conformity with current laws, rules, norms, regulations
and standards. 18
Example in practice
In Bhutan, those who are found guilty of failing to comply with the Anti-Corruption Act of 2006, which
requires public servants to accurately declare their assets and liabilities, are held liable under the
country’s penal code.19
Relevant links
—— Compliance Week.
http://www.complianceweek.com/
—— Ernst & Young: Corruption or Compliance, Weighing the Costs, 10th Global Fraud Survey.
http://www.ey.com/Global/assets.nsf/International/FIDS_Corruption_or_compliance_weighing_the_cos
ts/$file/Corruption_or_compliance_weighing_the_costs.pdf
—— GTZ: A Comparison of Compliance Reviews Based on the UN Convention against Corruption.
http://www.igac.net/pdf/publications_gtz_compliance.pdf
—— Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2008.
http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi
11. Conflict of Interest
Definition
Situation where an individual, whether working for a government or corporation, is confronted with
choosing between the duties and demands of her position and her own private interests. 20
Example in practice
The Law on Conflict of Interest in Bosnia-Herzegovina restricts elected officials, executives and
advisors in government institutions from certain activities if they result in private or material gain.
17 Ghana: State Collusion Breeds Corruption in Timber Sector. http://www.illegallogging.
info/item_single.php?item=news&item_id=2722&approach_id=1.
18 WikiAnswers, What Does Compliance Mean? http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_does_compliance_mean
19 Anti Corruption Act of Bhutan 2006 http://www.asianlii.org/bt/legis/laws/aaob2006279/.
20 Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local
Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004). U4 Corruption Glossary http://www.u4.no/document/glossary.cfm
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition
(Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/
These include acts related to the promising of employment, granting of privileges based on party
affiliation, giving of gifts, and provision of privileged information on state activities. 21
Relevant links
—— Center for Responsive Politics.
http://www.opensecrets.org/
—— Conflicts of Interest Board of the City of New York.
http://www.nyc.gov/html/conflicts/html/home/home.shtml
—— CorpWatch
http://www.corpwatch.org/
—— OECD Guidelines for Managing Conflicts of Interest in the Public Service.
http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/18/35/39691164.pdf
—— United Nations Anti-Corruption Toolkit.
http://www.unodc.org/documents/corruption/publications_toolkit_sep04.pdf
12. Conventions
Definition
International and regional agreements signed or formally adopted through ratification by multiple
states that establish rules and standards on issues which are typically cross-border in nature and
require a common approach for effective, multilateral cooperation.22
Example in practice
With 140 government signatories, the United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) is the
first international anti-corruption instrument that legally binds acceding and ratifying countries to
implement far-reaching reforms and establishes a common stance for efforts to combat corruption.
Other multi-lateral conventions on corruption include the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, the African
Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption and the Inter-American Convention on
Corruption.
Relevant links
—— Interpol: Conventions Regarding Anti-Corruption.
http://www.interpol.int/Public/Corruption/Conventions/default.asp
—— Transparency International, Anti-corruption conventions and other international instruments.
http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/international_conventions
—— U4: Anti-Corruption Conventions – An Overview.
http://www.u4.no/themes/conventions/intro.cfm
—— UK Anti-Corruption Forum.
http://www.anticorruptionforum.org.uk/acf/fs/resources/instruments/
13. Corporate Governance
Definition
Procedures and processes for how private sector organisations are directed, managed and controlled,
including the relationships between, responsibilities of and legitimate expectations among different
stakeholders (Board of Directors, management, shareholders, and other interested groups).23
21 Transparency International Bosnia-Herzegovina http://tibih.blhost.net/abut-us/faq/en/
22 Transparency International, Conventions http://www.transparency.org/global_priorities/international_conventions
United Nations Treaty Reference Guide http://untreaty.un.org/english/guide.asp#agreements
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the
Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).
Example in practice
The Board of Directors of General Electric (GE) oversees how management serves the interests of
shareowners and other stakeholders on a variety of issues of corporate governance. In the past, the
Board has received briefings on the company’s controllership, compliance and litigation trends and
environmental risk management.
Relevant links
—— European Corporate Governance Institute.
http://www.ecgi.org/
—— Global Compact: Business against Corruption.
http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/7.7/BACbookFINAL.pdf
—— Global Corporate Governance Forum.
http://www.gcgf.org/
—— International Corporate Governance Network.
http://www.icgn.org/
—— OECD Principles of Corporate Governance.
http://www.oecd.org/DATAOECD/32/18/31557724.pdf
14. Corruption
Definition
The abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Corruption can be classified as grand, petty and
political, depending on the amounts of money lost and the sector where it occurs. Also see ‘grand
corruption’, ‘petty corruption’ and ‘political corruption’.24
Example in practice
According to a national survey in India, high levels of corruption have left more than 70 percent of
families living below the poverty line having to pay a bribe to law enforcement and local housing
authorities.25
Relevant links
—— Asian Development Bank.
http://www.adb.org/Documents/Policies/Anticorruption/anticorrupt300.asp?p=policies
—— OECD: Corruption: Glossary of International Criminal Standards.
http://www.oecd.org/document/2/0,3343,en_2649_34857_40460290_1_1_1_1,00.html
—— Transparency International.
www.transparency.org/about_us
—— World Bank.
http://www1.worldbank.org/publicsector/anticorrupt/corruptn/cor02.htm
15. Debarment
Definition
23 Institute of Chartered Accountants, Corporate Governance
http://www.icaew.com/index.cfm/route/127640/icaew_ga/en/Technical_amp_Business_Topics/Topics/Corporate_governance/C
orporate_governance
OECD Glossary of Statistical Terms http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/.
Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_governance.
24 Transparency International. http://www.transparency.org/about_us.
25 Transparency International. India. TII-CMS Corruption Study 2007. With Focus on BPL Households. National Report. (New
Delhi, India: TII and CMS, June 2008). http://www.transparencyindia.org/ICS_national_report_2007.pdf.
Procedure where companies and individuals are excluded from participating in or tendering projects.
Governments and multilateral agencies use this process to publicly punish businesses, NGOs,
countries or individuals found guilty of unethical or unlawful behaviour.26
Example in practice
The World Bank debarred Lahmeyer International, a German company, and Acres International, a
Canadian-based firm, in 2004 and 2006, respectively. The decision was taken after a Lesotho court
found the companies guilty of bribing officials to win contracts for a multi-billion dollar water supply
scheme, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project. Lahmeyer has been suspended for seven years from
doing business with the Bank while Acres has been made ineligible for three years.
Relevant links
—— TI Recommendations for EU Debarment System.
www.transparency.org/content/download/5661/32802/file/TI_EU_
Debarment_Recommendations_06—03—28.pdf
—— U4: Debarment as an Anti-Corruption Means.
http://www.u4.no/themes/debarment/main.cfm
—— UK Anti-Corruption Forum: Fair and Efficient Debarment Procedures.
http://www.anticorruptionforum.org.uk/acf/fs/groups/fair_efficient.pdf
—— World Bank: Listing of Ineligible Firms.
www.worldbank.org/debarr
—— World Bank Sanctions Committee: Report Concerning the Debarment Processes of the World
Bank.
http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/PROJECTS/PROCUREMENT/0,,contentMDK:5000228
8~pagePK:84271~piPK:84287~theSitePK:84266,00.html
16. Disclosure
Definition
Provision of information as required under law or in good faith, regarding activities of a private
individual, public official or company. Information can include a political candidate’s assets, a
company’s financial reports or a whistleblower’s accusations.27
Example in practice
Following a lobbyist scandal in the US, a total of 51 corporations — including America Express,
Chevron, General Electric and Merck — agreed to adopt new rules that voluntary bind companies to
disclose publicly any corporate funds that are used for political purposes, either at the state or federal
level.28
Relevant links
—— Bank of Canada: Disclosure of Wrongdoing.
http://www.bankofcanada.ca/en/about/pdf/wrongdoing.pdf
—— International Chamber of Commerce: Commission on Anti-Corruption. Combating Extortion and
Bribery: ICC Rules of Conduct and Recommendations.
26 U4, Debarment as an Anti-Corruption Means http://www.u4.no/themes/debarment/main.cfm.
D. Thornburgh, R. Gainer, C. Walker, Report Concerning the Debarment Processes of the World Bank, 2002
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/PROCUREMENT/Resources/thornburghreport.pdf.
UK Anti-Corruption Forum: Fair and Efficient Debarment Procedures
http://www.anticorruptionforum.org.uk/acf/fs/groups/fair_efficient.pdf.
27 Centre for Political Accountability. http://www.politicalaccountability.net/.
Deutsche Bank. Banking and Stock Glossary. http://www.db.com/lexikon/lexikon_de/content/index_e_1163.htm.
Finance Glossary. http://www.finance-glossary.com/define/disclosure/416/0/D
Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat – Backgrounder: Glossary – Proposed Public Servants Disclosure Protection Act.
http://www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/nou/20041008glossary-eng.asp.
28Leslie Wayne, “Corporations to Disclose Political Contributions”. Washington Post. 29 May 2008.
http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/29/corporations-to-disclose-political-contributions/.
http://www.iccwbo.org/uploadedFiles/ICC/policy/anticorruption/Statements/ICC_Rules_of_Conduct_an
d_Recommendations%20_2005%20Revision.pdf.
—— International Finance Corporation: Disclosure Policy.
http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/disclosure.nsf/Content/Disclosure_Policy.