28-09-2011 03:53 PM - عدد القراءات : 2827
كتب by Transparency International
An unequal system of exchanging resources and favours based on an exploitative relationship between a wealthier and/or more powerful ‘patron’ and a less wealthy and weaker ‘client’.13
Example in practice
In Mexico, caciques or local power brokers provide peasants with plots of land, loans, security, and a medium through which to sell their crops in exchange for the peasants’ votes, often using strong-arm tactics to reinforce their power.
Relevant links
—— USAID: Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance - An Overview and Framework for Assessment and Programming.
—— World Bank: Policy Research Paper, Democracy, Credibility and Clientelism.
13 P. Keefer, ‘Clientelism, Credibility, and the Policy Choices of Young Democracies’, World Bank Group, 2005.
D Brinkerhoff and A Goldsmith, ‘Clientelism, Patrimonialism and Democratic Governance: An Overview and Framework for
Assessment and Programming’, Abt Associates prepared for USAID, 2002.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, The Global Programme Against Corruption – UN Anti-Corruption Toolkit, 3rd edition (Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).