Example in practice
During the 2004 Ukrainian presidential elections, reports of fraud from election-rigging (e.g. ballot box stuffing and voter intimidation) led to the annulment of the winning candidate’s victory and a run-off inwhich independent monitors declared the opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko the winner.
—— National Democratic Institute: Election Monitoring.
—— UK Electoral Commission.
—— UK Serious Fraud Office.
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).