01-10-2011 01:33 AM - عدد القراءات : 2026
كتب by Transparency International
The act of intentionally deceiving someone in order to gain an unfair or illegal advantage (financial, political or otherwise). Countries consider such offences to be criminal or a violation of civil law.36

Example in practice
During the 2004 Ukrainian presidential elections, reports of fraud from election-rigging (e.g. ballot box stuffing and voter intimidation) led to the annulment of the winning candidate’s victory and a run-off inwhich independent monitors declared the opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko the winner.
Relevant links
—— National Democratic Institute: Election Monitoring.
—— UK Electoral Commission.
—— UK Serious Fraud Office.
36 Global Infrastructure Anti-Corruption Centre
Transparency International, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Tools to Support Transparency in Local Governance (Kenya and Berlin: 2004).
United Nations Development Programme, Tackling Corruption, Transforming Lives: Accelerating Human Development in the Asia and the Pacific (New Delhi: Macmillan, 2008).